|11th United States Secretary of Education|
February 7, 2017
|Preceded by||John King Jr.|
|Chair of the Michigan Republican Party|
|Preceded by||Gerald Hills|
|Succeeded by||Saul Anuzis|
|Preceded by||Susy Avery|
|Succeeded by||Gerald Hills|
|Born||Elisabeth Dee Prince
January 8, 1958
Holland, Michigan, U.S.
|Relatives||Edgar Prince (father)
Erik Prince (brother)
Richard DeVos (father-in-law)
|Education||Calvin College (BA)|
Elisabeth Dee “Betsy” DeVos /dəˈvɒs/ (née Prince; born January 8, 1958) is the 11th United States Secretary of Education. Her background includes experience as a businesswoman, philanthropist and noted political campaign contributor. DeVos is a member of the Republican Party known for her advocacy of school choice, school voucher programs, charter schools, and ties to the Reformed Christian community. She was Republican National Committeewoman for Michigan from 1992 to 1997 and served as chairwoman of the Michigan Republican Party from 1996 to 2000, with reelection to the post in 2003. DeVos has been an advocate of the Detroit charter school system and she is a member of the board of the Foundation for Excellence in Education. She has served as chairwoman of the board of Alliance for School Choice and Acton Institute and heads the All Children Matter PAC. DeVos is married to Dick DeVos, the former CEO of multi-level marketing company Amway, and is the daughter-in-law of billionaire and Amway co-founder Richard DeVos. Her brother, Erik Prince, a former U.S. Navy SEAL officer, is the founder of Blackwater USA. DeVos is the daughter of Edgar Prince, founder of the Prince Corporation.
On November 23, 2016, then President-elect Donald Trump announced that he would nominate DeVos to serve as Secretary of Education in his administration. On January 31, following strong opposition to the nomination from Democrats for issues raised during DeVos’s testimony, the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions approved her nomination on a party-line vote, sending her nomination to the Senate floor. On February 7, 2017, DeVos was confirmed by the Senate by a 51–50 margin, with Vice President Mike Pence breaking the tie in favor of DeVos’s nomination. It was the first time in Senate history that a Vice President had done so for the appointment of a cabinet nominee.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Political activity
- 3 Political fundraising
- 4 Business career
- 5 Nomination for Secretary of Education
- 6 Non-profit and advocacy activities
- 6.1 The Prince Foundation
- 6.2 Dick & Betsy DeVos Family Foundation
- 6.3 Acton Institute
- 6.4 Arts
- 6.5 Education activism
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
DeVos was born Elisabeth Prince on January 8, 1958. She grew up in Holland, Michigan, the daughter of Elsa (Zwiep) Prince (later, Broekhuizen) and Edgar Prince, a billionaire industrialist, both of Dutch ancestry. Edgar was the founder of Prince Corporation, an automobile parts supplier based in Holland, Michigan.
DeVos was educated at the Holland Christian High School, a private school located in her home town of Holland, Michigan. She graduated from Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where she earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration and political science, and was “involved with campus politics,” according to Philanthropy magazine.
DeVos grew up as a member of the Christian Reformed Church in North America. She has been a member and elder of Mars Hill Bible Church in Grand Rapids. Former Fuller Seminary president Richard Mouw, with whom DeVos served on a committee, said she is influenced by neo-Calvinist theologian Abraham Kuyper.
The DeVos family is one of Michigan’s wealthiest. Betsy DeVos’ husband, Richard Marvin “Dick” DeVos Jr., is a multi-billionaire heir to the Amway fortune who ran Amway’s parent company, Alticor, from 1993 to 2002. Dick DeVos is a major donor to conservative political campaigns and social causes, and was the 2006 Republican nominee for Governor of Michigan. Dick’s father, Richard Marvin DeVos Sr., co-founded Amway and is also the owner of the Orlando Magic NBA basketball team. Richard DeVos was listed by Forbes in 2016 as having a net worth of $5.1 billion, making him America’s 88th wealthiest individual.
Betsy DeVos’ brother, Erik Prince, a former U.S. Navy SEAL officer, is the founder of Blackwater USA, a private military services contractor. Betsy and Dick DeVos have four grown children, two daughters and two sons: Rick, Elissa, Andrea, and Ryan. Rick works for the Windquest Group as a consultant on urban development.
Since 1982, DeVos has participated in the Michigan Republican Party. She served as a local precinct delegate. She was a Republican National Committeewoman for Michigan between 1992 and 1997, and served as chairwoman of the Michigan Republican Party from 1996 to 2000. In 2004, the Lansing State Journal described DeVos as “a political pit bull for most of [Gov. Jennifer] Granholm’s 16 months in office”, and said that if DeVos wasn’t Granholm’s “worst nightmare,” she was “certainly her most persistent.” Bill Ballenger, editor of the newsletter Inside Michigan Politics and a former Republican state senator, called DeVos “a good behind-the-scenes organizer and a good fund raiser” as well as “a true believer in core Republican issues that leave nobody in doubt on where she stands.” DeVos resigned the position in 2000. She said in 2000, “It is clear I have never been a rubber stamp… I have been a fighter for the grassroots, and following is admittedly not my strong suit.” In 2003, DeVos ran again for party chairman and was elected to the post without opposition.
DeVos personally raised more than $150,000 for the 2004 Bush re-election campaign, and hosted a Republican fundraiser at her home in October 2008 that was headlined by President George W. Bush. During the Bush Administration she spent two years as the finance chairperson for the National Republican Senatorial Committee and worked closely with the Administration on “various projects.” The DeVos family has been active in Republican politics for decades, particularly as donors to candidates and the party, giving more than $17 million to political candidates and committees since 1989.
Atlantic Magazine noted that DeVos had indicated in a 1997 op-ed that she expects results from her political contributions. “My family is the largest single contributor of soft money to the national Republican Party. I have decided to stop taking offense at the suggestion that we are buying influence,” she wrote. “Now I simply concede the point. They are right.” She also stated in the op-ed, “We expect to foster a conservative governing philosophy consisting of limited government and respect for traditional American virtues…We expect a return on our investment; we expect a good and honest government. Furthermore, we expect the Republican Party to use the money to promote these policies and, yes, to win elections.”
2016 U.S. presidential election
During the Republican Party presidential primaries for the 2016 election, DeVos initially donated to Jeb Bush and Carly Fiorina before eventually supporting Marco Rubio. In March 2016, DeVos described Donald Trump as an “interloper” and said that he “does not represent the Republican Party”.
DeVos and her husband were producers for a Broadway run of the stage play Scandalous: The Life and Trials of Aimee Semple McPherson, in 2012, based on the life of the famous evangelist and featuring a book and lyrics written by Kathie Lee Gifford. The show ran for three weeks, closing in December 2012 after bad reviews from Variety, The New York Times and others.
Betsy and her husband Dick are chief investors in and board members of Neurocore, a group of brain performance centers offering biofeedback therapy for disorders such as depression, attention deficit disorder, autism, and anxiety. The therapy consists of showing movies to patients and interrupting them when they become distracted, in an effort to retrain their brains. According to The New York Times, a review of Neurocore’s claims and interviews with medical experts suggest that the company’s conclusions are unproven and its methods questionable. Democratic senators raised concerns about a potential conflict of interest and questioned whether she and her family members would “benefit financially from actions” she could take as education secretary. DeVos announced that she would step down from the company’s board but would retain her investment in the company, valued at $5 million to $25 million.
Nomination for Secretary of Education
On November 23, 2016, it was announced that DeVos was President-elect Trump’s choice to be the next United States Secretary of Education. Upon her nomination, DeVos said “I am honored to work with the President-elect on his vision to make American education great again. The status quo in ed is not acceptable.”
Detroit Free Press editor Stephen Henderson expressed concerns over DeVos’s nomination, noting that “DeVos isn’t an educator, or an education leader. She’s not an expert in pedagogy or curriculum or school governance. In fact, she has no relevant credentials or experience for a job setting standards and guiding dollars for the nation’s public schools. She is, in essence, a lobbyist – someone who has used her extraordinary wealth to influence the conversation about education reform, and to bend that conversation to her ideological convictions despite the dearth of evidence supporting them.” Rebecca Mead of The New Yorker questioned the efficacy of Michigan’s charter school system, which DeVos has supported.
Randi Weingarten, president of the American Federation of Teachers, called DeVos “the most ideological, anti-public education nominee” since the position became a cabinet position. The Michigan chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union called DeVos’ school-vouchers advocacy “misguided” and said that “she has ardently supported the unlimited, unregulated growth of charter schools in Michigan, elevating for-profit schools with no consideration of the severe harm done to traditional public schools”. The Central Conference of American Rabbis, an organization representing Reform Jewish rabbis in the United States, opposed DeVos’s nomination, declaring that she had “specifically Christian goals” for the department, and raised concerns about her positions on gay rights and support for school vouchers. The Michigan Democratic Party released called DeVos a “dangerous and ill-advised pick” and an “anti-public education activist,” and accused her of “attacking the state’s public school system and its teachers for the sake of profits of investors in charter schools”.
Former presidential candidates Jeb Bush and Mitt Romney called DeVos an “outstanding pick” and a “smart choice”, respectively. Republican Senator Ben Sasse said DeVos “has made a career out of standing up to powerful and connected special interests on behalf of poor kids who are too often forgotten by Washington.” In an opinion editorial, The Chicago Tribune wrote that “DeVos has helped lead the national battle to expand education opportunities for children.”
|Betsy DeVos Education Secretary Confirmation Hearing, full video of hearing from C-SPAN, January 17, 2017|
|Betsy DeVos’s confirmation hearing, in three minutes, The Washington Post, January 17, 2017|
|Final Vote in the Senate for Confirmation of Betsy DeVos as Secretary of Education, full video of vote from C-SPAN, February 2, 2017|
The confirmation hearing for DeVos was initially scheduled for January 10, 2017, but was delayed for one week after the Office of Government Ethics requested more time to review her financial disclosures. On January 17, 2017 the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions held the hearing, which lasted three and half hours and “quickly became a heated and partisan debate”. Democratic senators directed several questions toward her regarding her wealth, including questions about her family’s political donations to the GOP and whether or not she had personal experience with financial aid or student loans. Several media outlets reported that DeVos appeared to have plagiarized quotes from an Obama administration official in written answers submitted to the Senate committee. DeVos drew widespread media attention during the confirmation hearings for suggesting that guns might have a place in schools due to the threat from grizzly bears. DeVos’ comment was later lampooned by TV personalities Kate McKinnon on SNL, Jimmy Kimmel, Stephen Colbert, and James Corden.
Numerous senators from both parties have reported tens of thousands of their constituents having contacted their offices in opposition to the confirmation of DeVos. More than 300 state lawmakers from across the U.S., overwhelmingly Democrats, voiced their opposition to DeVos’ appointment in a letter to the U.S. Senate sent the day before a scheduled vote on her nomination. Despite this, DeVos’ nomination has seen support among 18 Republican governors, including John Kasich and Rick Snyder, along with the nine Republican members of Congress from Michigan.
Debate and final vote
Senator Al Franken said in an interview on January 26, 2017, that every Democrat in the Senate will oppose DeVos’s confirmation, meaning the Democrats, the minority in the Senate, will also need three Republicans to vote against DeVos to block the confirmation, which requires a simple majority to pass. On January 31, DeVos’ nomination was approved by the committee on a 12–11 party-line vote and was due to be voted on by the Senate. Later on February 1, 2017, two Republican senators, Susan Collins (Maine) and Lisa Murkowski (Alaska), came out against the confirmation, bringing the predicted confirmation vote on DeVos to 50–50 if all Democrats and independents vote as expected, meaning Vice President Mike Pence would have to break the tie. During an unusually early 6:30 AM vote on February 3, 2016, a cloture was invoked on DeVos’s nomination in the Senate, requiring a final vote on the confirmation to happen after 30 hours of debate.
Ahead of the scheduled final vote at noon on February 7, 2017, the Democrats in the Senate continuously spoke on the floor against the confirmation of DeVos the entire night before leading up to the vote, in protest of their strong disapproval of the nominee. The final vote saw all the Senators producing a 50-50 tie. As pledged, all 48 Democrats opposed along with Republicans Susan Collins and Lisa Murkowski. The rest of the Republicans voted for DeVos, including Senator Jeff Sessions, who himself had been nominated by the Trump administration for the post of United States Attorney General. Republicans scheduled Sessions’ confirmation vote after DeVos’ so that he would be able to vote on her. Had his confirmation vote been earlier than hers, he would have been forced to resign from the Senate and be unable to vote on DeVos. Since there was a tie, Vice President Mike Pence played tiebreaker as the President of the Senate. He cast his tie-breaking vote in favor of DeVos to officially confirm her as education secretary. This was the first Cabinet confirmation vote decided by a vice president in history, along with being the first tie decided by a vice president on any vote in the Senate since the George W. Bush administration.
Non-profit and advocacy activities
The Prince Foundation
DeVos was listed for many years on IRS form Form 990s as the foundation’s vice president (hitherto called the Edgar and Elsa Prince Foundation). However she testified under oath in the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee hearing, in response to Senator Maggie Hassan‘s questions, that she had nothing to do with the contributions made by her mother’s foundation to anti-gay rights groups including Focus on the Family and the Family Research Council. The Council has also lobbied against preventative health care programs, such as “needle exchanges.”
Dick & Betsy DeVos Family Foundation
The Dick & Betsy DeVos Family Foundation was launched in 1989. The foundation’s giving, according to its website, is motivated by faith, and “is centered in cultivating leadership, accelerating transformation and leveraging support in five areas”, namely education, community, arts, justice, and leadership. In 2015, the DeVos Foundation made $11.6 million in charitable contributions, bringing the couple’s lifetime charitable giving to $139 million. Forbes ranked the DeVos family #24 on its 2015 list of America’s top givers.
The foundation’s donations have been focused largely on funding Christian organizations and Christian private schools. The foundation donated $100 million from 1999 to 2014. roughly half of which went to Christian organizations. Notable organizations funded by the foundation include: Michigan’s Foundation for Traditional Values; Focus on the Family, operated by James Dobson; Center for Individual Rights; Acton Institute; Institute for Justice; Center for Individual Rights; Michigan’s Pregnancy Resource Center; Right to Life Michigan Educational Fund; and Baptists for Life.
With respect to educational-focused donations, the foundation from 1999 to 2014 preferentially supported private Christian schools (at least $8.6 million), and charter schools ($5.2 million), while providing a small amount (less than 1% of total donations) to public schools ($59,750). Specific donations included $2.39 million to the Grand Rapids Christian High School Association, $652,000 to the Ada Christian School, and $458,000 to Holland Christian Schools.
DeVos was appointed by President George W. Bush to the board of directors of the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in 2004, and served until 2010. While she was on the board, she and her husband funded a center to teach arts managers and boards of directors how to fundraise and manage their cultural institutions. The couple donated $22.5 million in 2010 to continue the endeavor, which was given in the name the DeVos Institute of Arts Management.
After the announcement of the DeVoses’ gift to the Kennedy Center, DeVos explained that she had been persuaded by Kennedy Center official Michael Kaiser‘s observation that millions of dollars are invested “in the arts, and training artists”, but not in “training the leaders who hire the artists and run the organizations”. The DeVoses’ gift was intended to remedy this oversight. “We want to help develop human capital and leverage that capital to the greatest extent possible”, she said, describing Kaiser’s “practice and approach” as “practical, realistic and creative”. The DeVoses’ gift, part of which would be spent on arts groups in Michigan that had been hit hard by the recession, was the largest private donation in the Kennedy Center’s history.
DeVos, a Calvinist Christian, in 2001 has listed education activism and reform efforts as a means to “advance God’s Kingdom“. In an interview that year, she also said that “changing the way we approach … the system of education in the country … really may have greater Kingdom gain in the long run”.
DeVos believes education in the United States should be opened up to for-profit charter schools, and she has stated that education is “a closed system, a closed industry, a closed market. It’s a monopoly, a dead end.” DeVos believes that opening up the education market will offer parents increased choice, a view that critics call a drive to privatize the American public education system.
DeVos is known as a “a fierce proponent of school vouchers” that would allow students to attend private schools with public funding. According to The New York Times, it “is hard to find anyone more passionate about the idea of steering public dollars away from traditional public schools than Betsy DeVos”.
DeVos served as chairwoman of the board of Alliance for School Choice. Until November 2016, she headed the All Children Matter PAC which she and her husband founded in 2003 to promote school vouchers, tax credits to businesses that give private school scholarships, and candidates who support these causes. Over the years, DeVos and her husband have provided millions in funding for the organization. In 2008, All Children Matter was fined $5.2 million in Ohio for illegally laundering money into political campaign funds. DeVos was not named in the case. The fine remained unpaid as of 2017, prompting calls by Democratic Party lawmakers for DeVos to settle the debt.
Her other activities on behalf of public-school reform have included membership on the boards of directors of the Advocates for School Choice, the American Education Reform Council, and the Education Freedom Fund. She has chaired the boards of Choices for Children, and Great Lakes Education Project (GLEP).
DeVos is Chair of the American Federation for Children (AFC). Affiliated with the Alliance for School Choice, the AFC describes itself as “a leading national advocacy organization promoting school choice, with a specific focus on advocating for school vouchers and scholarship tax credit programs”. Former GOP Assembly Speaker Scott Jensen serves as one of the group’s lobbyists and senior advisers.
During the 1990s, she served on the boards of Children First America and the American Education Reform Council, which sought to expand school choice through vouchers and tax credits. She and her husband worked for the successful passage of Michigan’s first charter-school bill in 1993, and for the unsuccessful effort in 2000 to amend Michigan’s constitution to allow tax-credit scholarships or vouchers. In response to that defeat, DeVos started a PAC, the Great Lakes Education Project, which championed charter schools. DeVos’s husband and John Walton then founded All Children Matter, a political organization, which she chaired.
Detroit charter school system
DeVos has been an advocate for the Detroit charter school system. Douglas N. Harris, professor of Economics at Tulane University, wrote in a 2016 New York Times op-ed that DeVos was partly responsible for “what even charter advocates acknowledge is the biggest school reform disaster in the country”. In the National Assessment of Educational Progress, Detroit had the lowest reading and mathematics scores “by far” over any city participating in the evaluation. She designed a system with no oversight, said Harris, and where schools that do poorly can continue to enroll students.
Ramesh Ponnuru of National Review said that “some 47 percent of charter schools in Detroit significantly outperform[ed] traditional public schools in reading”. Defending DeVos’ record in Michigan, Jay P. Greene, professor of Education Policy at the University of Arkansas argued Harris’s New York Times article misled readers on the evidence and “falsely claimed that Detroit has failed to close failing charter schools”, noting that Detroit has closed more charters than Louisiana, a state Harris cites as a model for charter school legislation.
In a written response to a question about charter school performance posed during DeVos’ confirmation hearing by Senator Patty Murray (D-WA), asking “why do you think their performance is so poor?”, DeVos defended the charter school system using graduation rates that were significantly higher than those used for state and federal accountability purposes. DeVos provided examples of several charter schools that she said had 4-year graduation exceeding 90%. These examples were contested by Columbia University professor Aaron Pallas and Education Week reporter Ben Herold on the basis that the actual graduation rates were roughly only half as large as DeVos had stated.
DeVos and Joel Klein said in a May 2013 op-ed that residents of Maine “are now given information on school performance using easy-to-understand report cards with the same A, B, C, D and F designations used in student grades“. This system, they argued, “truly motivates parents and the community to get involved by simply taking information that education officials have had for years and presenting it in a way that is more easily understood.”
Betsy and Dick DeVos Scholars for Free Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Scholarship
The DeVoses have also established an annual scholarship, called the Betsy and Dick DeVos Scholars for Free Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Scholarship, which is awarded to students earning a BBA or combined BBA/MBA at Northwood University.
Foundation for Excellence in Education
DeVos is a member of the board of the Foundation for Excellence in Education (ExcelinEd), a think tank founded by Jeb Bush whose stated goal is to “build an American education system that equips every child to achieve his or her God-given potential”.
- Pulliam Bailey, Sarah (November 23, 2016). Betsy DeVos, Trump’s education pick, is a billionaire with deep ties to the Christian Reformed community. The Washington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
- Turner, laura (January 30, 2017). “Why Evangelicals Are Speaking Out Against Betsy DeVos”. Politico. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Stratford, Michael (December 20, 2016). “DeVos heads into confirmation with a megadonor’s advantage”. Politico. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- Wermund, Benjamin (December 2, 2016). “Trump’s education pick says reform can ‘advance God’s Kingdom'”. Politico. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Katherine Stewart (December 13, 2016), Betsy DeVos and God’s Plan for Schools, The New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Ponnuru, Ramesh (November 28, 2016). “DeVos and Detroit’s Charter Schools”. National Review. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- Zernike, Kate (June 28, 2016). “A Sea of Charter Schools in Detroit Leaves Students Adrift”. The New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- Chase Peterson-Withorn (November 23rd 2016),Trump Picks Betsy DeVos, Daughter-In-Law Of Billionaire Amway Cofounder, For Education Secretary Forbes, Retrieved 20th December 2016.
- “How Betsy DeVos Could Fix America’s Broken Education System”. NewHampshireReview.com. The New Hampshire Review. January 22, 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- Scahill, Jeremy (2008). Blackwater: The Rise of the World’s Most Powerful Mercenary Arm. Nation Books. ASIN B0097CYTYA.Prince, Erik (2014). Civilian Warriors: The Inside Story of Blackwater and the Unsung Heroes of the War on Terror. Portfolio. ISBN 978-1-59184-745-8.
- “Edgar D. Prince“. New Netherland Institute. newnetherlandinstitute.org.
- Benjamin Wermund and Kimberly Hefling (November 25th, 2016), Trump’s education secretary pick supported anti-gay causes, Politico, Retrieved 14 December 2016.
- Brown, Emma (November 23, 2016). “Trump picks billionaire Betsy DeVos, school voucher advocate, as education secretary”. The Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Hagen, Lisa (January 31, 2017). “Senate committee approves DeVos nomination”. The Hill. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
The Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) on Tuesday morning approved Betsy DeVos’s nomination to lead the Department of Education. DeVos was confirmed 12–11 along party lines.
- Hutterman, Emmarie (February 7, 2017). “Betsy DeVos Confirmed as Education Secretary; Pence Breaks Tie”. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Elving, Ron (February 7, 2017). “Pence Becomes First VP To Break Senate Tie Over Cabinet Nomination”. NPR. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Huetteman, Emmarie (February 7, 2017). “Mike Pence’s Vote on a Cabinet Nominee Would Be Historic”. The New York Times. New York. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Scahill, Jeremy (2007). Blackwater: The Rise of the World’s Most Powerful Mercenary Army. New York, NY: Perseus Books/Nation Books. pp. 2–8.
- Shandra Martinez (September 8, 2010). “Amway heir Dick and Betsy DeVos move into sprawling 22,000-square-foot mansion”. The Grand Rapids Press. MLive.com. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Mead, Rebecca (December 14, 2016). “Betsy DeVos and the Plan to Break Public Schools”. The New Yorker. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Philanthropy Staff (2013). “Interview with Betsy DeVos, the Reformer” (print and online). Philanthropy. Washington, D.C.: Philanthropy Roundtable (Spring). Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Boston, Rob (September 2010). “Michigan Multi-Millionaire Betsy DeVos Is A Four-Star General In A Deceptive Behind-The-Scenes War On Public Schools And Church-State Separation”. Church & State.
- Sanneh, Kalefa. “The Hell-Raiser”. The New Yorker. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- Kaplan Sommer, Allison. “Onward Christian Cabinet: Trump’s White House Picks Are a Christmas Gift for the Religious Right”. Haaretz. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- Mark Tower (December 17, 2016), DeVos family political giving nears $10 million prior to 2016 election, MLive Media Group, Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- Schaefer, Jim (October 9, 2007). “Blackwater founder comes under fire”. USA Today. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
- “Transcript”. Bill Moyers Journal. October 19, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
- “Thank you, Betsy DeVos, for leading GOP charge against Dave Agema”. The Grand Rapids Press. January 28, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
- Kathy Barks Hoffmann (November 12, 2008). “DeVos decides against Mich. gubernatorial run”. The Holland Sentinel. The Associated Press.
- Forbes 400, #88 Richard DeVos & family, Forbes, retrieved January 4, 2017
- Bennett, Laurie (December 26, 2011). “The Ultra-Rich, Ultra-Conservative DeVos Family”. Forbes. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- Smith, David (November 23, 2016). “Betsy DeVos, billionaire philanthropist, picked as Trump education secretary”. The Guardian. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
- Marx, Linda. “Betsy DeVos: ‘I did not want a place in Florida, but we fell in love with Windsor'”. Vero Beach 32963. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Windquest Group website
- Wozniak, Curt. “How I Spent My Summer Vacation”. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Gordon, Neil. “Profiles: Organizational Donor: Elizabeth DeVos”. PublicIntegrity.org, The Center For Public Integrity. May 26, 2005
- “Affirmative action initiative poses problems for politicians”. The State News. East Lansing, Michigan. August 23, 2003. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Steve Benen (September 2000). “Voters In California And Michigan Face Referenda On Voucher Aid To Religious Schools”. Church & State. Americans United for Separation of Church and State. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Andrews, Chris (April 24, 2004). “Leading the Charge”. Lansing State Journal. p. 1A.
- Medema, Kate (February 7, 2003). “DeVos starts fresh, familiar position”. Chimes. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Calvin College. 97 (16). Archived from the original on May 7, 2004. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- “Michigan Gubernatorial Candidate Urges Bush to Meet With Big Three Automakers”. FoxNews.com. The Associated Press. August 24, 2006. Retrieved May 23, 2011.[dead link]
- Chris Christoff (October 15, 2008). “Bush attends fund-raiser in Grand Rapids”. The Detroit Free Press. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- “Standing for Change”. TheGathering.com. Tyler, Texas: The Gathering. Retrieved July 9, 2013.[dead link]
- David Smith (November 23, 2016), Betsy DeVos, billionaire philanthropist, picked as Trump education secretary, The Guardian, retrieved January 4, 2017.
- Deruy, Emily (January 17, 2017). “What Betsy DeVos Did (and Didn’t) Reveal About Her Education Priorities”. The Atlantic. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Cathcart, Corrine (November 23, 2016). “Betsy DeVos: Everything You Need to Know”. ABC News. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- “Scandalous: The Life and Trials of Aimée Semple McPherson Broadway @ Neil Simon Theatre – Tickets and Discounts”. Playbill. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- Suskin, Steven (2012-11-16). “Review: ‘Scandalous'”. Variety. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- Isherwood, Charles (2012-11-15). “‘Scandalous: The Life and Trials of Aimee Semple McPherson'”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- “Review – Scandalous on Broadway – Everything I Know I Learned From Musicals”. http://www.everythingmusicals.com. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- “Scandalous Review: Kathie Lee Gifford’s Broadway Term Paper”. New York Theater. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
- Fink, Sheri (January 30, 2017). “Betsy DeVos Invests in a Therapy Under Scrutiny”. New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Brown, Emma (January 24, 2017). “Grade Point Betsy DeVos’s ethics review raises further questions for Democrats and watchdogs”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Zeliadat, Nicholette (February 1, 2017). “Pick for U.S. education secretary rankles autism community”. Spectrum. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Goldstein, Matthew (January 20, 2017). “Betsy DeVos Won’t Shed Stake in Biofeedback Company, Filings Show”. New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Brown, Emma (January 23, 2017). “Democrats request another hearing for DeVos, Trump’s education pick, before confirmation vote”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- “Why is Betsy DeVos, Trump’s pick for education secretary, so unpopular?”. BBC News. February 5, 2017. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Henderson, Stephen (December 3, 2016). “Betsy DeVos and the twilight of public education”. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Zernike, Kate (November 23, 2016). “Betsy DeVos, Trump’s Education Pick, Has Steered Money From Public Schools”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Nathan-Kazis, Josh (February 6, 2017). “Reform Rabbis Slam Betsy DeVos for ‘Christian’ Education Plan”. The Forward. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Mark, Michelle (November 25, 2016). “Meet Betsy DeVos, the polarizing charter-school advocate Trump has tapped as education secretary”. Business Insider. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Romney, Mitt (January 9, 2017). “Mitt Romney op-ed: Betsy DeVos a smart choice for education secretary”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- “Editorial: The case for Betsy DeVos”. Chicago Tribune. December 1, 2016. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- Revesz, Rachael (January 10, 2017). “Betsy DeVos’ senate confirmation delayed amid concerns over her political donations”. The Independent. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- “Betsy DeVos, Trump’s pick for education secretary, open to defunding public schools”. NBC News. January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- Zernike, Kate; Alcindor, Yamiche. “Betsy DeVos’ Education Hearing Erupts into Partisan Debate”. The New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Associated Press (January 31, 2017). “DeVos May Have Used Official’s Remarks Without Attribution”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Merica, Dan; Scott, Eugene (January 31, 2017). “Betsy DeVos appears to have plagiarized quotes for Senate questionnaire”. CNN. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- “Senate confirms Betsy DeVos as Education secretary as Pence breaks 50-50 tie”. San Diego Union Tribune. February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Danilova, Maria (February 7, 2017). “DeVos ekes out confirmation win as Pence casts historic vote”. Star Tribune. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- “DeVos confirmed as education secretary as Pence breaks tie”. Minnesota Public Radio News. February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Wong, Alia (February 7, 2017). “Education Secretary Betsy DeVos Has Already Affected Public Education”. The Atlantic. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- “Betsy DeVos squeaks through as Education secretary after Pence casts first-ever tie-breaking vote”. Los Angeles Times. February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Graham, David A (January 19, 2017). “Sorry, Betsy DeVos: Guns Aren’t a Bear Necessity in Schools”. The Atlantic. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Alastair, Jameison (January 18, 2017). “Betsy DeVos Cites Grizzly Bears During Guns-in-Schools Debate”. NBC News. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Merica, Dan (January 18, 2017). “Citing grizzlies, education nominee says states should determine school gun policies”. CNN. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Brulliard, Karin (January 18, 2017). “Actually, Betsy DeVos, guns are a pretty lousy way to ward off grizzlies”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Winsor, Morgan (January 18, 2017). “What Trump’s Education Secretary Pick Betsy DeVos Said About Guns in Schools”. ABC News. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- “Education pick Betsy DeVos cites grizzlies in Wyoming when asked about guns in schools”. CBS News. January 18, 2017. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Blistein, Jon (January 19, 2017). “Watch Colbert, Kimmel, Corden Mock Betsy DeVos’ Grizzly Bear Fears”. Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Barrett, Malachi (February 5, 2017). “‘Saturday Night Live’ jabs Betsy DeVos in Sean Spicer skit”. MLive. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Holmes, Jack (January 19, 2017). “Stephen Colbert Found Footage of the Grizzly Attacks Betsy DeVos Is Worried About”. Esquire. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Strauss, Valerie (February 5, 2017). “Answer Sheet SNL takes a jab at Betsy DeVos during a mock Sean Spicer news conference”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Brown, Emma (January 19, 2017). “With lightning speed, Betsy DeVos became a target of late-night comics”. Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Roskopp, Jack (February 6, 2017). “VIDEO: Betsy DeVos got the ‘SNL’ treatment this weekend and it was glorious”. Detroit Metro Times. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Manzullo, Brian (February 5, 2017). “‘Saturday Night Live’ pokes fun at Betsy DeVos in Sean Spicer skit”. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Wheeler, Lydia; Shelbourne, Mallory. “Anti-Devos calls jam Senate phone lines”. The Hill. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Brown, Emma (January 30, 2017). “Progressives launch last-minute push against Betsy DeVos, and conservatives counter with online ad campaign”. Washington Post. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Nann Burke, Melissa (January 30, 2017). “Vote on DeVos looms as Democrats raise more concerns”. The Detroit News. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Firozi, Paulina. “Franken: No Dems will vote to confirm DeVos for secretary of Education”. The Hill. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Carney, Jordain. “Two GOP senators to vote ‘no’ on Betsy DeVos”. The Hill. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Carney, Jordain. “Senate advances DeVos’s nomination, setting her up for final vote”. The Hill. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Carney, Jordain. “Democrats plan all-night protest ahead of DeVos vote”. The Hill. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Resmovits, Joy. “Betsy DeVos squeaks through as Education secretary after Pence casts first-ever tie-breaking vote”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Revesz, Rachael. “Betsy DeVos confirmed: Trump education pick stumbles over finishing line after Mike Pence casts tie-breaking vote”. The Independent. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Schleifer, Theodore. “Republicans need Jeff Sessions to stay in the Senate just a little longer”. CNN. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Cowan, Richard. “Vice President Mike Pence breaks Senate tie to confirm Betsy DeVos as US education secretary”. Reuters. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- HUETTEMAN, EMMARIE. “Betsy DeVos Confirmed as Education Secretary; Pence Breaks Tie”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- “DeVos Confirmed as Education Secretary, Pence Casts Historic Tie-Breaking Vote”. Fox News. February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- Michael Strafford, Caitlin Emma, Kimberly Heffling (February 7, 2017). “Senate confirms DeVos as secretary of education”. Politico. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- Trump Education nominee Betsy DeVos lied to the Senate, The Intercept, Jeremy Scahill, January 18, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- “About”. Grand Rapids: Dick and Betsy DeVos Family Foundation. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- Docksai, Rick (March 1, 2016). “School Choice, But Much More: Making Sense of DeVos Family Philanthropy”. Inside Philanthropy. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- “What We Do”. Dick and Betsy DeVos Family. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- Martinez, Shandra (January 9, 2017). “Dick and Betsy DeVos lift the veil on their $139M in philanthropy”. MLive. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- Savhuk, Katia (2015). “America’s Top 50 Givers: Meet the philanthropists who gave away the most money in 2015”. Forbes. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- Rizga, Kristina (January 17, 2017). “Betsy Devos wants to use America’s schools to build “God’s kingdom””. Mother Jones. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Guyette, Curt (October 4, 2006). “You don’t know Dick”. Detroit Metro Times. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Smith, Samuel (January 18, 2017). “Trump’s Education Pick Betsy DeVos Criticized for Donating Millions to Christian Organizations”. The Christian Post. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Klein, Rebecca (January 24, 2017). “Speaker At Group Supported By Betsy DeVos Says Hitler Was Good At Reaching Children”. Huffington Post. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Michaelson, Jay (January 17, 2017). “Betsy DeVos, Trump’s Education Pick, Could Make Life Hell for LGBT Youth”. Daily Beast. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Horowitz Satlin, Alana (November 24, 2016). “Group Funded By Trump’s Education Secretary Pick: ‘Bring Back Child Labor'”. Huffington Post. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Rosza, Matthew (November 25, 2017). “”I can’t imagine a worse pick”: Critics slam choice of Betsy DeVos to be secretary of education”. Salon. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Jung, Helin (February 2, 2017). “11 Things You Need to Know About Betsy DeVos, Trump’s Education Secretary Nominee”. Cosmopolitan. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Kaczmarczyk, Jeffrey (May 3, 2010). “Dick and Betsy DeVos donate $22.5 million to Kennedy Center training program in Washington”. The Grand Rapids Press. MLive Media Group. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Trescott, Jacqueline (May 4, 2010). “Kennedy Center gets $22.5 million gift from DeVos family”. The Washington Post.
- Zongker, Brett (May 4, 2010). “Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Gets $22.5M Gift from DeVos Family”. Art Daily. Associated Press. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Valerie Strauss (December 21, 2016), To Trump’s education pick, the U.S. public school system is a ‘dead end’, The Washington Post, retrieved January 5, 2017.
- “Meet Betsy DeVos, the polarizing charter-school advocate Trump has tapped as education secretary”. Business Insider. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- “About Us – Board of Directors”. Washington, D.C.: Alliance for School Choice. Archived from the original on February 1, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- “DeVos, Elisabeth P.” (PDF). United States Office of Government Ethics.
- “Local News Briefs”. Lansing State Journal. April 5, 2008. p. B1. This site is pay-per-view.
- Rolly, Paul (April 9, 2008). “Paul Rolly: Pro-voucher group fined $5.2 million”. Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- AP staff reporter (April 5, 2008). “DeVos PAC fined record $5.2 million by Ohio elections board”. MLive.com. The Associated Press. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
- Wermund, Benjamin (November 29, 2016). “Trump’s education secretary pick led group that owes millions in election fines”. Politico. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- “School choice expanding as record fine languishes”. MLive.com. The Associated Press. March 20, 2011.
- “Democratic senators press Trump’s education pick Betsy DeVos to pay years-old $5.3 million fine”.
- Dawsey, Darrell. “Observers say latest affirmative action ruling may be overturned, but battle goes on in Michigan.” MLive.com. July 5, 2011. Grand Rapids: MLive Media Group.
- Stanton, Ryan J. “Group questions why right-wing Republican group is behind ads supporting Democrat Pam Byrnes.” AnnArbor.com. July 10, 2010. MLive Media Group.
- “Our Mission”. American Federation for Children. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Beck, Molly (January 18, 2017). “Betsy DeVos tied to millions spent in Wisconsin politics”. Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Rothschild, Matt (January 3, 2017). “Betsy DeVos Buys Influence Here”. Urban Milwaukee. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- “100 Most Influential Women: Betsy DeVos”. Crain’s Detroit. September 26, 2016. Retrieved September 26, 2016.
- Harris, Douglas N. (November 25, 2016). “Betsy DeVos and the Wrong Way to Fix Schools”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- “DeVos and Detroit’s Charter Schools”. National Review. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Greene, Jay (December 6, 2016). “When Evidence and Science are Really Just Assumptions and Ideology”. Education Next.
- Turner, Cory (February 4, 2017). “Betsy DeVos’ Graduation Rate Mistake”. National Public Radio. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Herold, Benjamin (February 1, 2017). “Betsy DeVos Used Cherry-Picked Graduation Rates for Cyber Charters”. Education Week. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- Klein, Joel; Devos, Betsy (May 25, 2013). “A–F grades promote transparency and parental involvement”. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- “Six Future Northwood University Students Receive the Betsy and Dick DeVos Scholarship for Free Enterprise and Entrepreneurship”. Northwood University. April 22, 2015. Retrieved April 22, 2015.
- “Board of Directors”. Foundation for Excellence in Education. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
“Mission and History”. Foundation for Excellence in Education. Retrieved July 10, 2013.